The most preventable cancer, but, nevertheless, it is the third most frequently registered cancer in women! Thanks to effective screening and vaccination against human papillomavirus (the main cause of this cancer), the incidence of cancer should have been very low. But how does he continue to be proud of being the second leading cause of cancer deaths in women around the world?
Studies show that the lack of participation of women in screening programs is one of the main causes of such high morbidity. The reasons for not participating in screening programs include a low level of knowledge about the indications and benefits of the test; believe that a person has no risk of developing cancer; fear of embarrassment or pain of the procedure and fear of detecting cancer.
Why do you need this screening, even if it seems safe from developing cancer?
The most common cause of this cancer is infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV). 99% of cervical cancers in singapore are associated with HPV infection. An HPV infection is more common in sexually active young women. The risk of infection with this infection increases from an early age of sexual activity; Several sexual partners and more children. Other risk factors include low immunity, smoking, long-term use of birth control pills, poverty, and a family history of cervical cancer.
The early stage of cervical cancer, called the precancerous stage, begins with minor changes in the cytology of cervical cells. At this stage there may be no obvious symptoms, such as pain, to warn you about something abnormal. In progressive stages, common symptoms appear, such as abnormal bleeding or increased vaginal discharge. These symptoms are usually confused with other gynecological conditions. Because if symptoms like pelvic pain, loss of urine or stool from the vagina, weight loss, back pain, and bone pain, abnormal cells would penetrate more deeply into the cervix and penetrate other organs, resulting in an expanded condition called invasive cervical cancer.
Detection of this condition is becoming increasingly necessary in these years to reduce the incidence of cervical cancer screening in singapore and treat this condition at the earliest stage when it is completely curable. In the initial stages, when only marginal or minor changes are observed in cell cytology, treatment consists of laser therapy or cryotherapy. If left untreated, precancerous changes may progress to invasive surgery for cervical cancer, radiation therapy or chemotherapy, depending on the extent of the disease.
Of course, this transition usually takes many years (ten years or more), and therefore effective detection and early detection can significantly reduce morbidity.
What is a screening test?
The most common and effective screening method for cervical cancer is the Papanicolaou test (Papanicolaou). The test detects any abnormal cells in the cervix, which is the lower part of the uterus. It is very effective in detecting precancerous changes, but a single Pap test is not enough to determine if changes are present or not. Reports show that invasive cervical cancer in singapore is often diagnosed in women who have never had a Pap smear or who have not observed abnormal results.
When should women step forward to discover?
- The recommended guide is to take exams of 21 years old.
- Between the ages of 21 and 29, it is recommended to take a Pap smear every 3 years.
- Between the ages of 30 and 65, a 5-year HPV test combined with a Pap test is preferred, but a 3-year Pap test is also acceptable.
- There is no need to perform tests after age 65 if previous screening reports were negative and there were no risk factors.
- Abnormal Pap test results require repeated Pap tests after 6 months or 1 year.
- Positive cases require colposcopy and biopsy.
Raising awareness about the screening program is a key challenge, and women must step forward to protect themselves, get rid of their shyness, fear, and ignorance in order to eradicate and overcome cervical cancer in singapore.